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Recent In Memoriam (Obituaries)

Donald “Bruce” Montgomery

July 1, 1933 to July 1, 2022
"Bruce" Montgomery, 2013 IEEE CSC Awards Luncheon

Donald “Bruce” Montgomery, influential electromagnet engineer, dies at 89

Donald “Bruce” Montgomery SM ’57, a highly influential engineer and longtime MIT researcher whose career was focused on the development of large-scale electromagnets, died on July 1. He was 89.

Montgomery’s contributions have been pivotal for numerous major facilities in fusion energy, in the design of magnets for particle accelerators for physics and medical applications, for magnetically levitated transportation, and in many other disciplines. He was a recognized international leader in magnet design and fusion engineering, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and recipient of numerous awards including the Dawson Award for Excellence in Plasma Physics Research (1983) and the Fusion Power Associates Distinguished Career Award (1998).

Montgomery graduated with a BA from Williams College and an MS from MIT in the Department of Electrical Engineering in 1957. In 1967 he received an ScD from the University of Lausanne.

Following his graduation from MIT he joined the staff of MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and shortly after began work on high-field magnets under Francis Bitter, renowned magnet designer and founder of the National Magnet Laboratory at MIT. Montgomery rose to become the associate director of what was later renamed the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory. During this period he authored the book "Solenoid Magnet Design: The Magnetic and Mechanical Aspects of Resistive and Superconducting Magnets," which remains a standard reference.

A turn toward fusion

Montgomery’s expertise was next harnessed to a growing program in fusion energy. Following the measurement of plasma temperatures exceeding 10 million degrees in the Soviet T3 tokamak, a race was on to build ever more capable magnetic confinement experiments. Working with Bruno Coppi of MIT’s physics department and Ron Parker from electrical engineering, Montgomery led a team that designed and constructed two tokamak devices capable of operating with magnetic fields up to and exceeding 12 Tesla, still today an unprecedentedly high magnetic field for fusion research. The initial device, known as Alcator A, set a world record for the key plasma confinement metric. The follow-on device, Alcator C, extended this record in the 1980s and gave confidence that plasma conditions sufficient for a fusion power plant could indeed be achieved.

The record-setting performance by both devices was made possible by the use of breakthrough magnet technology developed with Montgomery’s insight and leadership. One can draw a straight line between these early breakthroughs in magnet technology and the resultant scientific progress that they enabled to the further evolution of magnet technology being used in SPARC, a demonstration fusion device led by MIT and spinoff company Commonwealth Fusion Systems that is designed to produce more energy than it consumes.

Montgomery also had a well-recognized ability to manage very large projects and to lead diverse groups of scientists, engineers, technicians, and students. As a result he was appointed chief engineer on several national fusion system construction projects and had a leadership role in the early days of the international fusion project known as ITER. In the 1990's he led one of the three national consortia teams vying to develop maglev technology under the U.S. Department of Transportation Maglev Initiative.

Creating a revolutionary cable

While at the National Magnet Lab, Montgomery, Henry Kolm, and Mitch Hoenig invented the concept for the cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC). In those early days of large-scale superconducting magnet research, large-bore, high-field superconducting magnets were built in a type of brute-force method. These older designs were unstable and unsuitable to the need for ever higher magnetic fields, and larger sizes increase the performance of magnetic confinement fusion machines. This technology was impeding advancement, especially for the tokamak’s poloidal field magnets which were required to deliver rapidly changing fields.

Montgomery, Kolm, and Hoenig solved these problems by combining many superconducting wires into a cable, using standard industrial equipment, and then putting the cable inside a steel or other high strength metal alloy tube (conduit). The magnet was cooled down and maintained at 4K by flowing supercritical helium within the conduit. Since each conductor could be insulated against high voltages, large-bore, high-field, high-stored magnetic energy magnets could be safely protected from quench. The strong metal alloy conduit provided high mechanical strength distributed most optimally throughout the winding cross-section. And the flowing helium provided excellent heat transfer from all the superconducting wires in the cable, resulting in very high electrothermal stability, especially for fast ramped magnets.

Although the CICC concept was deemed heretical within the international applied superconductivity community and dismissed as impractical, under Montgomery's leadership the MIT group rapidly developed and proved the concept. Today, every working fusion device in the world that uses superconducting magnets employs this conductor, including tokamaks (e.g., EAST, KSTAR, JT60-SA), helical machines (LHD), and stellarators (Wendelstein 7-X). It is the baseline conductor design for ITER and has found application in particle accelerators and magnetic levitation.

Exploring magnetic levitation and propulsion

In the 1970's, Montgomery and Kolm from the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory collaborated with Richard Thornton from the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering in formulating the "magplane" concept of magnetic levitation and propulsion. An early demonstration of a model scale device was built and tested on MIT's athletic fields. Montgomery and Henry Kolm later founded Magplane Technology, Inc. (MTI) a small company focused on developing advanced applications of magnetic levitation and propulsion. A working version of this technology was built in China, where it was used to deliver coal from coal mines, avoiding the excessive coal dust and waste resulting from open trucking vehicles. In the 1980's, Montgomery worked with Peter Marston and Mitch Hoenig, leading an MIT team developing very large-scale superconducting magnets for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation.

Engineers and scientists know that failure can be the best instructor. Montgomery took that lesson to heart, diagnosing failure mechanisms in large magnet systems and authoring several meta-studies which analyzed and tabulated the underlying causes. This work allowed engineers to focus on the most critical aspects of their designs and contributed to the growing reliability of research magnets. After his retirement from MIT in 1996, Montgomery was the founder and president of MTECHNOLOGY Inc., an engineering consultancy which specializes in risk and reliability.

An engineer’s engineer

Joe Minervini, one of Montgomery’s proteges, notes: “Bruce was considered by me and most people who knew him to be an 'engineer's engineer.' Although he always possessed a deep scientific understanding of the technology problem he was attacking, he always seemed to formulate a brilliant but practical engineering solution. Over his long career at MIT, he demonstrated this time and again on many of the most advanced and challenging new technologies built around conventional and superconducting magnets.”

Beyond the breadth of his technical contributions and committed mentorship, Bruce Montgomery will be remembered for his warm personality and his calm, steady demeanor, which was of inestimable value when things got tough — a common occurrence when pushing the envelope in research. He had a unique ability to take control of contentious technical and management discussions and to gently pull or push everyone to an effective consensus and into action. He will be sorely missed by his friends, family and colleagues.

Montgomery is predeceased by his wife of 52 years, Nancy Ford Fenn, who passed away in 2006, and by Elizabeth Bartlett Sturges, with whom he spent many happy years until her passing in 2021. He is survived by his son Timothy Montgomery and his wife Susan of Scituate, Massachusetts; daughter Melissa Sweeny and her husband Tom of Groton, Massachusetts; as well as his grandchildren, Jenna Sweeny, Christopher Sweeny, and Benjamin Sweeny.

This obituary was originally published in MIT News on July 15 2022, written by Martin Greenwald | Plasma Science and Fusion Center.

Sir Martin Wood

April 19, 1927 to November 23, 2021

Physicist founder of Oxford Instruments, a trailblazing university tech start-up that enabled the first MRI whole body scanner

When young physicist Martin Wood had what was then a revolutionary idea of creating a business out of his research in magnets at Oxford University, the head of physics, Nicholas Kurti, manhandled him. “He grabbed the epaulet of my jacket, pulled me up close to him and said in his deep, strong, guttural Hungarian accent, ‘Vot can I do to help you?’ ” Wood recalled.

In return for the use of facilities at the Clarendon Laboratory to support the first high-tech company spun out of the university, Wood agreed to continue his research at Oxford’s electromagnets facility for ten years after founding Oxford Instruments in his garden shed in 1959.

Wood would build the venture into a world-leading supplier of superconducting wire for commercial purposes, as well as products based on powerful magnets that operate at very low temperatures. These included the first commercial MRI whole body scanner, an innovation that has helped to save millions of lives.

While at Oxford, Wood had been leading a nocturnal existence; the magnets could only be used at night because so much energy was required to run them. They operated from an enormous motor generator that used to power Manchester’s trams and would have caused an electricity outage at the local power station had he tried to use them during the day.

When the first superconducting magnet was developed in the United States in 1961, enabling a powerful electromagnet to be run from a car battery, Wood saw the potential for the technology in multiple applications. He set about improving the design of the American prototypes, which were expensive to run because of the need to use large amounts of liquid helium to cool them.

A year later Wood made the first superconducting magnet outside the US based on running a current through a coil of niobium zirconium alloy wire that produced a magnetic field.

“As the temperature dropped, the resistance of the magnet fell in the normal way, until at a magic moment the voltage needle suddenly dropped to zero while the ammeter remained steady, and I felt the same feeling of incredulity as Kamerlingh Onnes must have experienced all those years ago. The magnet produced a magnetic field of 4.1 Tesla in the 1.8cm bore of the magnet. We were in the superconducting magnet business!”

Wood reported his findings in the New Scientist and was inundated with inquiries from physicists around the world, keen to work in high magnetic fields but without the significant power installations the old copper magnet systems needed.

He soon had three commissions. One was at the UK Atomic Energy Research Laboratory at Harwell, which wanted a magnet for neutron spectroscopy in a space allocated in a beam line from a reactor. The second came from an ex-Clarendon physicist at the Royal Radar Research Establishment at Malvern, who needed a magnet for secret naval research projects. The third was from the Nuclear Fusion Research Group of the Atomic Energy Authority, which asked for 39 helically wound copper coils for modulating the magnetic field in the first “mirror machine” to be constructed there.

For a time, the garden shed became a manufacturing hub, with a second-hand lathe and a special winding machine he had invented for making the copper pancake coils. His wife became an expert in moulding fibre-glass casings. “We lived in a delightful part of Oxford where industrial activity would never be allowed,” Wood recalled. “Fortunately, we had a big garden and I planted trees around the workshop and our illegal activities were never discovered.” It was a family affair. His brother-in-law, a solicitor, provided legal counsel. Another brother-in-law, an accountant, advised on finances while his wife learnt bookkeeping. The company had been started with £200 borrowed from his mother-in-law.

With demand growing in the early 1960s he moved the company to a former stables in Oxford. His magnets were used in the nuclear reactors for power stations being built throughout the sixties and seventies and would provide components for microscopes, spectroscopes, helium refrigerators and measuring instruments that could investigate materials at very low temperatures.

In 1970, a year after he had left his post at Oxford for good, Wood’s enterprise was turning over £350,000 (nearly £5 million today) and employing 100 people. Profits were invested in the acquisition of Newport Instruments in 1974. Wood harnessed its expertise in nuclear magnetic resonance technology to design superconducting magnets that would enable the first whole-body MRI scanners in 1980 for Hammersmith Hospital in London and the Imaging Laboratory at the University of California.

Reports of how the scanners could render more detailed pictures inside the body led to a surge in demand. To meet it, Wood founded the subsidiary Oxford Magnet Technology and formed a joint venture with the German conglomerate Siemens. A factory was built in Eynsham, Oxfordshire, which today produces more than a quarter of all MRI magnets. After 15 years Siemens bought OI out of the MRI business; OI used the proceeds to semi-automate production in its core business.

Oxford Instruments grew to 1,100 employees and expanded its product range to include ambulatory monitoring systems for recording heart rate, brain activity or foetal activity. Wood would patrol his growing empire in sandals. He was also a big believer that employees be given a shareholding to help them buy into the company’s vision. A flotation on the London Stock Exchange in 1983 valued the company at £126 million (£368 million today), after which Wood stepped away from the day-to-day running of the company. Oxford Instruments won the Queen’s Awards for Enterprise five times. Wood was knighted in 1986.

Martin Francis Wood was born in Great Milton, Oxfordshire, in 1927 to Arthur Wood, a civil servant who worked at the Board of Education, and Katharine (née Cumberlege). He attended Gresham’s School in Holt, Norfolk. Before he could take up his place to read engineering at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was given the choice of army, navy or air force for his National Service. He rejected them all to go down the mines as a Bevin Boy and dug at the coalface at mines in South Wales and the Midlands. All the while his brain fired with ideas of how to improve the dark and forbidding underground environment. He enjoyed the work, despite being given the most unpleasant coalface after having the temerity to complain about the working conditions of his fellow miners.

After completing his degree the Coal Board sponsored a further two years of study at the Royal School of Mines, now part of Imperial College London. He joined the Coal Board in 1954 with many ideas to make mining safer and more efficient but found the organisation unreceptive to change. A year later he joined Oxford University as a senior research officer for the cryo-magnetic group at the Clarendon Laboratory that had been set up by Kurti, Francis Simon and Georg Mendelssohn, who had all come to Britain as Jewish refugees from the Nazis. One objective of the group was to pursue research projects on materials at these ultra-low temperatures.

By then Wood had married Audrey Stanfield, whom he had met at Cambridge where she was studying natural sciences and English. She had been widowed and had two small children. Wood’s stepson, Robin, had polio and Wood, a natural problem solver, helped to design hinged callipers that would allow the boy to ride a tricycle. His wife survives him along with their son, Jonny, and his stepchildren, Robin and Sarah. Their daughter, Patsy, died in 2007.

As one of the first to make the bridge from science academia to industry Wood started a crusade to help young people do the same. In 1985 he and his wife founded and endowed the Oxford Trust to provide grants for A-level science and technology projects that formed a link with companies to produce a viable product. He then converted a builder’s yard in Oxford into units for start-ups, an innovative model at the time, and developed a network of tech start-ups known as Oxford Innovation.

As a child Wood had volunteered to manage local woodland rather than enlist in his school’s cadet corps. He founded the Northmoor Trust (later renamed the Earth Trust) in 1967 to provide education in wildlife and countryside management. Today the Earth Trust owns 1,200 acres on the banks of the Thames near the village of Little Wittenham as a wildlife habitat open to the public. He formed the Sylva Foundation, too, to support sustainable forest management.

He also left his mark on where his journey began, endowing £2 million for the building of the Sir Martin Wood Lecture Theatre at the Clarendon Laboratory at Oxford.

Wood was immensely proud of his invention of an affordable superconducting magnet and believed that it could have a bigger part to play in combating climate change. “Given the quite extraordinary property of loss-free conduction of electricity, it is surprising that superconductivity has not made a greater impact in a wider range of technologies and industries,” he said in 2011. “Nevertheless the increasing cost of energy serves as a strong incentive for the introduction of superconductivity in a range of developments.”

Sir Martin Wood, CBE, FRS, was born on April 19, 1927. He died of pneumonia on November 23, 2021, aged 94.

The obituary above was originally printed in The Times (UK) on December 16th, 2021. 

Justin Williams, Times Newspapers LTD

Read Sir Martin Wood's obituary from University of Oxford.

Edward Neil Cliff Dalder

May 24, 1935 to November 15, 2021

Edward Neil Cliff Dalder died Nov. 15. He was 86.

Dalder was born to Edward Henry Dalder and Estelle Cliff Dalder on May 24, 1935, in Brooklyn, New York. In school, he excelled in science and mathematics. He was admitted to Brooklyn Technical High School, graduating in 1952. He promptly started undergraduate work in engineering at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, now known as NYU Tandon School of Engineering, graduating with bachelor's and master's degrees in metallurgical engineering in 1956. In 1969 he returned to school at Ohio State University and earned his doctorate in metallurgical engineering in 1973. Between 1956 and 1969 he worked as engineer for Grumman Aerospace Corporation, United Aircraft Corporation, Republic Aviation Corporation and US Steel. After obtaining his doctorate, he worked for the U.S. Department of Energy in Germantown, Maryland. Between 1979 and May 2008, he worked as a research engineer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He taught courses in metallurgy and welding engineering on a part-time basis at the University of California, Berkeley, San Jose State University, University of Maryland and George Washington University in Washington, DC. After his 2008 retirement from the Lab, he operated a part-time engineering consulting business.

He is survived by his wife, Barbara Kennedy-Dalder of Alameda, and their son, Brian Dalder of Fort Bragg; his three children from his first marriage; Erin Alpher of Crofton, Maryland, Eddie Dalder of Annapolis, Maryland and Linda Dalder of Baltimore, Maryland. He has one grandchild. Finally, he is survived by his younger sister, Linda Cathcart, of Rocky Point, New York. His mother predeceased him in 1996. His father died in Los Angeles in 1977.

A service was held via Zoom on November 29, 2021. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation to your favorite charity. For further information please call, Harry W. Greer, funeral director (CA. License FDR-745).

Alexander Dmitrievich Kovalenko

October 31, 1944 to April 30, 2021

A talented scientist with a worldwide reputation. Alexander Dmitrievich participated in the creation of electron accelerators LIU-3000 and SILUND-I, was one of the key leaders in the design, creation and launch of the world's first superconducting heavy ion accelerator - Nuclotron, he was one of the initiators and leaders of the NICA project at JINR.

Robert “Bob” Buhrman

April 24, 1945 to April 13, 2021
Robert “Bob” Buhrman (Photo: Cornell University)

(PO80).  Applied physicist Robert “Bob” Buhrman, M.S. ’69, Ph.D. ’73, the John Edson Sweet Memorial Professor of Engineering Emeritus and Cornell’s second senior vice provost for research, and vice president for technology transfer and intellectual property, who helped expand emerging science and engineering programs, and obtain funding for research, died April 13 in Rochester, New York. He was 75.

“Bob Buhrman was a visionary and effective leader for more than 50 years at Cornell, helping to organize numerous research centers, serving as director of Applied and Engineering Physics and as vice provost for research,” said Dan Ralph, Ph.D. ’93, the F.R. Newman Professor of Physics in the College of Arts and Sciences (A&S). “He was a valued mentor to countless students and young faculty, providing wisdom on how to succeed in science and engineering.”

Robert Alan Buhrman was born in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania on April 24, 1945, and he grew up on a small farm in Smithsburg, Maryland. He earned a bachelor’s degree in engineering physics at Johns Hopkins University in 1967 and his master’s and doctoral degrees in applied physics from Cornell.
Buhrman joined the Cornell faculty in 1973 as an assistant professor in the School of Applied and Engineering Physics. He became an associate professor in 1978 and a professor in 1983. He was named the John Edson Sweet Professor of Engineering in 1993.

Buhrman served as the associate director of the National Research and Resource Facility for Submicron Structures from 1980-83 and director of the School of Applied and Engineering Physics from 1988-98. He was the first director of Cornell’s Center for Nanoscale Systems in Information Technologies.

Buhrman led his field in developing methods to reorient nanoscale magnets (electrons) to make magnetic memories faster and more efficient. His innovations enabled spin-transfer-torque magnetic random-access memory, now in production at leading semiconductor foundries. His work was the first to demonstrate magnetic switching in a multilayer device driven by spin-transfer torque, and he also discovered a giant spin Hall effect in heavy metals, which can enable even more efficient magnetic switching.

Excerpt taken from the obituary written by Blaine Friedlander in the Cornell Chronicle on April 16, 2021

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